"If we get the LSA, it will go a long way to facilitating future activity, which means that the scale of the activity involved means that the paperwork is quite huge," diplomatic sources said. A diplomatic source said last year that a refuelling exercise between the two marines last year had "become a modeling exercise, because we couldn`t really switch on fuel because we didn`t have an agreement on logistics." The big announcement was the decision to conclude a $75 billion bilateral foreign exchange agreement to stabilize fluctuations in Rube`s value against the dollar and reduce the cost of capital for Indian companies while accessing foreign capital markets. The two countries signed a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) in 2011 to facilitate the growth of bilateral trade. This has been described as the most comprehensive of all India`s agreements, including trade in goods and services, passenger transport, investment, intellectual property rights, customs procedures and other trade-related issues. Defense officials said the pact was long overdue because of deep defense and strategic cooperation between the two countries. The Russian agreement gives India access to its Facilities in the Arctic, which foresees an increase in global activity, due to the opening of new shipping routes and available resources, said a third official. The Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) is negotiated on a bilateral basis between the United States and its NATO allies or coalition partners, allowing U.S. forces to exchange the most common types of assistance, including food, fuel, transportation, ammunition and equipment. The agreement does not commit a country to take military action. STAs also exist between third countries. Japan and South Korea have both formed ACSAs with countries other than the United States.
 The ARLS with Russia is expected to be signed at the meeting between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Vladimir Putin in September on the sidelines of the Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok, Russia. Last month, a delegation led by Secretary of State Jiwesh Nandan visited Russia to conclude the agreement, according to the Defense Ministry in its monthly report. Moscow had sent a draft agreement early last year, and the MoD sent it in July to the Integrated Defence Staff and the three services for their positions. India signed the Memorandum of Understanding (LEMOA) with the United States in August 2016, after decades of negotiations. Since then, it has concluded several such agreements with France, Oman, the Philippines and Singapore and has gained access to the port of Sabang in Indonesia.