Canada ratified the agreement in March and the USMCA came into force on July 1, 2020. Although NAFTA is officially dead, governments and businesses are still adapting to the new rules, especially the new labour rules. Coronavirus can also complicate implementation as manufacturers adapt to new guidelines in the midst of a global economic crisis. The agreement has failed to liberalize trade in some areas, particularly the ongoing dispute over coniferous timber. Issues such as trade in minerals, freshwater and conifer wood remain controversial. The full text of the agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada is available here. After diplomatic negotiations in 1990, the heads of state and government of the three nations signed the agreement on 17 December 1992 in their respective capitals.  The signed agreement had to be ratified by each country`s legislative or parliamentary department. A 2007 study showed that nafta had "a significant impact on the volume of international trade, but a modest impact on prices and prosperity."  Maquiladoras (Mexican assembly plants that absorb imported components and produce goods for export) have become the emblem of trade in Mexico. They left the United States for Mexico, hence the debate about the loss of American jobs. Revenues in the maquiladora sector had increased by 15.5% since nafta in 1994.
 Other sectors have also benefited from the free trade agreement and the share of non-cross-border exports to the United States has increased over the past five years [when?], while the share of exports from border states has declined. This has led to rapid growth in non-cross-border metropolitan areas such as Toluca, Leén and Puebla, all more populated than Tijuana, Ciudad Juérez and Reynosa. A 2015 study showed that Mexico`s prosperity increased by 1.31% as a result of NAFTA tariff reductions and by 118% for Mexico`s intra-Bloc trade.  Inequality and poverty have decreased in the regions of Mexico most affected by globalization.  Studies from 2013 and 2015 showed that Mexican small farmers benefited more from NAFTA than large farmers.   Proponents of NAFTA in the United States stressed that the pact was a free trade agreement and not an agreement on the Economic Community.  The free movement of goods, services and capital did not extend to work. By proposing what no comparable agreement had attempted to open up to a "great third world country" - NAFTA avoided the establishment of a common social policy and employment. The regulation of the labour market and employment has remained exclusively due to national governments.  President Donald Trump has made the denunciation of NAFTA and other trade agreements that he considered unfair to the United States. On August 27, 2018, he announced a new trade agreement with Mexico, which is expected to replace it. The U.S.-Mexico trade agreement, as has been said, would maintain duty-free access for agricultural products on both sides of the border and eliminate non-tariff barriers, while encouraging more agricultural trade between Mexico and the United States and effectively replacing NAFTA.
In July 2017, the Trump administration presented a detailed list of changes it wants to make to NAFTA.  The top priority was to reduce the U.S. trade deficit.   The government has also called for the abolition of provisions allowing Canada and Mexico to challenge U.S. tariffs and impose import restrictions on the United States, Canada and Mexico.  The list also highlighted subsidized state-owned enterprises and monetary manipulation.   Chapter 19 of NAFTA was a trade litigation mechanism that subjects anti-dumping and compensatory tariff rules (AD/CVD) to binational panel review or conventional judicial review.  In the United States, for example, the review of the decisions of authorities imposing anti-dumping and countervailing duties is normally understood by